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6.0L DIT Power Stroke - Part 3

Source:
International Publication


Part 3 of 6 in a series of articles outlining the Features, Descriptions, Unique Service Procedures, and General Diagnostics of the 6.0L DIT Power Stroke

From International Truck & Engine Corporation Publication

6.0 DIT Power Stroke

Air Management System

Air Management System Features
  • The air management system is made up of the air filter, turbocharger, charge air cooler, intake manifold, and the EGR system.
System Flow
  • Air enters the system through the air filter where particles are removed from the air.  The air filter has a filter minder on it to warn the operator of a restricted air filter.
  • After the air is filtered, the mass of the air and temperature is measured by the mass air flow sensor (MAF).
  • The filtered air is then directed past the crankcase ventilation system where crankcase vapors and fresh air are mixed.
  • After mixing with crankcase vapors the fresh air mixture is drawn into the turbocharger compressor where it is compressed and sent to the charge air cooler (CAC).
  • The CAC condenses the air by cooling it then the air returns to the engine through the intake manifold.
  • There us a throttle body on the intake manifold.  The throttle body may or may not have a throttle plate.  For 2003.25 the throttle plate will not be active in the PCM strategy.
  • The intake manifold directs the air to the intake ports of the cylinder heads.
  • The burned air fuel mixture is pushed out of the cylinder into the exhaust manifold which collects the exhaust gases and routes them to the turbocharger turbine wheel.
  • The exhaust up pipe, connected to the passenger side exhaust manifold has a passage that connects it to the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler.
  • The exhaust gasses, cooled by the EGR cooler are sent to the EGR valve in the intake manifold.
  • The EGR valve controls the flow of exhaust gasses into the intake system where the gasses are mixed with intake air to reduce NOx (Nitrogen Oxide) emissions and noise.
  • The hot and expanding exhaust gasses that are routed to the turbocharger turbine, spin the turbine wheel through flow and expansion.  The spinning turbine wheel in turn spins the compressor wheel via a common shaft.
Air Filter / Filter Minder
  • The air filter is located on the drivers side of the engine compartment between the battery and the radiator.
  • A filter minder, device used to measure filter restriction, is located on the back of the air filter housing.
  • Fresh air, from the drivers side fender and the grill area, is drawn into the air filter and particulates are removed from the air before going to the engine.
Air Filter Element
  • The new air filter element is made into the air filter housing.  When replacing the filter, the entire housing will have to be replaced.
  • The air filter is capable of holding 1600 grams of particulates before needing replacement.
  • The filter element is a honeycomb design.
Charge Air Cooler
  • The charge air cooler is located in the front of the radiator.
  • It is an air-to-air cooler designed to lower the temperature of the air coming out of the turbocharger outlet before entering the intake manifold.
VGT Features
  • The turbocharger for the 6.0L Power Stroke engine is designed to provide boost control at low and high speeds for improved throttle response.
  • The Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT) is electronically controlled and hydraulically actuated.
  • The VGT may also be referred to as EVRT.
  • When the vanes of the turbocharger are closed, the engine will have a higher exhaust back pressure and create more heat which will in turn warm the engine faster in cold ambient conditions.
VGT Compressor
  • The compressor on the VGT is similar to the compressor on a conventional turbocharger.
  • The compressor wheel is connected to the turbine via a common shaft.
VGT Turbine
  • The VGT uses a turbine wheel that is similar to a conventional turbocharger but the turbine housing has changed.
  • The turbine housing contains vanes that control the effective size of the housing.  These vanes are hydraulically actuated and electronically controlled.
VGT Control Valve
  • The VGT control valve is commanded by the PCM, based on engine speed and load.  The magnetic field generated by this signal moves a shaft in the control valve.  This movement meters engine oil through the valve to either side of the piston.  This design feature reacts quickly to changes in demand based on driving conditions.  When one side of the piston is pressurized, the opposite side is vented.
  • Depending on which side of the piston is pressurized, the vanes either open or close.  A cam follower at the end of the valve assembly provides feedback to the valve allowing it to reach a neutral position during times the vanes are not commanded to move.
VGTCV Flows
  • When the VGTCV is commanded to the full open position, low or no duty cycle, oil from the oil supply line is directed to the open side of the actuator piston.
  • Oil on the closed side of the piston is then directed through the actuator piston, back to the VGTCV, and then to drain.
  • Note: If the VGTCV is disconnected the valve will default to the open position.
  • Once the desired turbocharger vane position is obtained, the VGTCV goes to a neutral position and both the open and closed sides of the actuator piston is blocked off.
  • When the VGTCV is commanded to the full closed position, high duty cycle, oil from the oil supply line is directed through the actuator piston to the closed side of the piston.
  • Oil on the open side of the piston is directed back to the VGTCV and then to drain.
VGT Turbine Vanes Closed
  • During engine operation at low engine speeds and load, little energy is available from the exhaust to generate boost.  In order to maximize the use of the energy that is available, the vanes are closed.  In doing so, the exhaust gas is accelerated between the vanes and across the turbine wheel.  In general, this allows the turbocharger to behave as a smaller turbocharger than it actually is.
  • Closing the vanes also increases the back pressure in the exhaust manifold which is used to drive the exhaust gas through the EGR cooler and valve into the intake manifold.  This is also the position for cold ambient warm-up.
VGT Turbine Vanes Partially Closed
  • During engine operation at moderate engine speeds and load, the vanes are commanded partially open.
  • The vanes are set to this intermediate position to supply the correct amount of boost to the engine for optimal combustion as well as providing the necessary back pressure to drive EGR.
  • Note: The VGT control valve piston is coupled to the vanes through a shaft and the unison ring.
VGT Turbine Vanes Open
  • During engine operation at high engine speeds and load, there is a great deal of energy available in the exhaust.
  • Excessive boost under high speed, high load conditions can negatively affect component durability, therefore the vanes are commanded open preventing turbocharger overspeed.
  • Essentially, this allows the turbocharger to act as a large turbocharger.
EGR Valve
  • The PCM-controlled EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) valve adds cooled exhaust gasses to the intake manifold to reduce NOx emissions.
  • The EGR valve is opened during steady state throttle positions when exhaust back pressures are higher then intake manifold pressures (boost).
EGR Flow
  • The EGR valve has two valves connected by a common shaft.
  • Cooled exhaust gases come to the center of the valve through a passage in the intake manifold.
  • When the valves open, they allow exhaust gasses to flow into the intake air stream from the top and bottom of the passage.
EGR Cooler
  • The EGR cooler is a coolant to air heat exchanger that is used to cool the exhaust gasses before they are sent to the EGR valve.
  • The exhaust gasses are routed into the EGR cooler from the exhaust up pipes at the rear of the engine.
  • The exhaust gasses are cooled by passing through metal tubes that are surrounded by engine coolant.  Depending on conditions, the temperature drop across the cooler could be as much as 700F.
  • The cooled gasses are then routed to the EGR valve that is mounted in the intake manifold.
EGR Throttle
  • All 2003.25 6.0L Power Stroke engines are equipped with a throttle body.
  • Some early versions also have a throttle plate in the throttle body.  Later versions will retain the throttle body but not the throttle plate.
  • The throttle was designed to assist with EGR operation but later was determined unnecessary.
  • The PCM software for controlling the throttle body was not added and the plate was removed.
  • The throttle body may become operational for the 2004 model year.
  • Note: All engines have the wiring plugged into the throttle body and position sensor even if the throttle plate is not present.
Intake Manifold
  • The intake manifold on the 6.0L Power Stroke is made of aluminum and directs the flow of air to the intake ports in the cylinder heads.
  • The intake manifold provides a path for coolant from the EGR cooler to the front cover.
  • There is a passage for EGR gasses to go to the EGR valve where they mix with compressed intake air.
  • The manifold absolute pressure sensor (MAP) port and the intake air temperature 2 (IAT2) sensor are both mounted in the intake manifold.
  • The passage at the rear of the manifold is to equalize pressure on both sides of the manifold.

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