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6.0L DIT Power Stroke - Part 4

Source:
International Publication


Part 4 of 6 in a series of articles outlining the Features, Descriptions, Unique Service Procedures, and General Diagnostics of the 6.0L DIT Power Stroke

From International Truck & Engine Corporation Publication

6.0 DIT Power Stroke

Fuel Management System

Generation II Fuel Management System Diagram
  • The generation II fuel management system uses high pressure oil and electronics to actuate and control fuel injection into the cylinders.
Generation II Fuel Management System Major Components
  • The fuel management system is comprised of several sub systems.
  • Fuel Supply System.
  • High Pressure Oil System.
  • Lubrication.
  • Sensors.
  • Injectors.
  • Electrical Components.
  • Actuators.
Generation II Fuel Management System Advantages
  • Emissions and noise have been reduced through improvements in rate and timing control.
  • No external high pressure oil lines exist.
  • The high pressure system's pressure relief is located in the IPR (Injection Pressure Regulator).
High Pressure Oil System Flow
  • Oil reservoir is filled by the lube oil system and contains approximately 1 qt.
  • High pressure pump is sealed inside the crankcase, and has only one (1) outlet.
  • High pressure pump discharge line connects the pump to the left and right branches and to the IPR valve in the high pressure pump cover.
  • High pressure oil stand pipe connects to the branch outlets and provides a path through the pushrod area to the high pressure lines.
  • High pressure oil line connects the stand pipes to the high pressure oil rail.
  • High pressure oil rail is bolted to the cylinder heads and acts as a reservoir for high pressure oil.
  • Check valves incorporated in the inlet fitting for the high pressure oil rail, limit hydraulic disturbance/feed back from injector operation.
  • Injectors deliver fuel when the spool valve is positioned to allow oil to enter the area above the intensifier piston.
High Pressure Oil System Schematic
  • After lube oil is cooled and filtered, some is directed to the reservoir.
  • The reservoir provides oil to the high pressure pump.
  • The IPR (Injection Pressure Regulator) is PCM-controlled and contains the system's pressure relief valve which opens at 4000 psi.
  • The plumbing from the pump to the high pressure oil rails for each head contains a check valve and orifice.
  • The oil rails are not cast into the head but are removable and fastened to the cylinder head and connected to the top of the injectors.
High Pressure Pump & Cover
  • The high pressure pump is installed inside the crankcase.
  • The pump is a seven (7) piston swash plate style pump that is driven off of the rear gear train.
  • Minor leakage from the pump will not create external oil leaks.
  • Both banks of cylinders are supplied oil through one (1) pump outlet.
IPR (Injection Control Pressure Regulator) & ICP (Injection Control Pressure Sensor)
  • The IPR and ICP are both installed into the high pressure pump cover, beneath the turbocharger turbine inlet pipe.
High Pressure Oil with AWA Feature
  • The high pressure oil rail has special AWA (Acoustic Wave Attenuation) features to dampen hydraulic noises.
  • To accomplish this, an AWA fitting is placed in the center of the high pressure oil rail and two specially designed end caps are used.
Fuel Injector Features
  • The injector uses two (2) 48 volt 20 amp coils to control a spool valve that directs oil flow in and out of the injector.
  • The injector coils are turned on for approximately 800 µsec (micro second or millionth of a second.
  • No special tools are needed to remove the injectors from their bore.  The injector is slowly removed from its bore by removing the hold down clamp bolt.
Injector & O-rings
  • The injector has two (2) replaceable o-rings on the outside of the body, one (1) internal non-replaceable o-ring in the top of the injector, and one (1) replaceable copper combustion gasket on the tip of the injector.
  • The injector's two (2) coils have a single four (4) pin connector that passes through the rocker arm carrier.
Injector Coils & Spool Valve
  • There is an open coil and a close coil on the injector that moves the spool valve from side to side using magnetic force.
  • The spool valve has two positions; when the valve is in the open position, it allows oil to flow from the high pressure oil rail into the injector.
  • When the valve is in the closed position, it allows oil to drain from the injector back to the crankcase.
  • The total movement of the valve is only .017".
Intensifier Piston
  • When the spool valve is in the open position, high pressure oil is allowed to enter the injector and pushes the intensifier piston and plunger downward.
  • Since the intensifier piston is 7.1 times greater in surface area than the plunger, the injection force is also 7.1 times greater at the plunger than what the injection control pressure (ICP) is.
Plunger & Barrel
  • The bottom of plunger and barrel of the injector is where the fuel injection pressure is built.
  • When the plunger is pushed downward by the intensifier piston, it increases the fuel pressure in the barrel 7.1 times that of the ICP pressure.
  • The plunger is coated with a tungsten carbide coating to reduce the possibility of scuffing and poor performance.
Injection Nozzle
  • The injection nozzle needle is an inwardly opening type which lifts off its seat when pressure overcomes the VOP (Valve Opening Pressure) of approximately 3100 psi.
  • Fuel is atomized at high pressure through the nozzle tip.
Stages of Injection
  • The injection cycle has three (3) stages.
  • Fill.
  • Main injection.
  • End of main injection.
  • During some conditions, the injector will perform all three stages of the injection cycle two times per firing cycle.  This is called pilot injection.
Fill Cycle
  • During the fill stage, the spool valve is in the closed position.
  • High pressure oil from the oil rail is dead headed at the spool valve.
  • Low pressure fuel fills the port below the plunger.
  • The needle control spring holds the needle on its seat so that fuel cannot enter the combustion chamber.
Main Injection Step 1
  • Pulse width controlled current energizes the open coil, magnetic force moves the spool valve to the open position.
  • High pressure oil flows past the spool valve into the intensifier piston chamber.
  • Oil pressure overcomes the intensifier piston spring force and the intensifier starts to move.
  • Fuel inlet check ball seats due to an increase of fuel pressure under the plunger.
  • Fuel pressure starts to build once the plunger passes the fuel spill port of the barrel.
  • Force on the nozzle needle begins to build.
Main Injection Step 2
  • The pulse width-controlled current is shut off after 800 µsec (micro second or millionth of a second) but the spool remains in the open position.
  • High pressure oil from the rail continues to flow past the spool valve.
  • The intensifier piston and plunger continue to move and pressure increases in the barrel.
  • When fuel pressure rises above the VOP (Valve Opening Pressure) of about 3100 psi, the nozzle needle lifts off of its seat and injection begins.
End of Main Injection Step 1
  • When the IDM (Injector Drive Module) determines that the correct injector on time has been reached (meaning that the correct amount of fuel has been delivered), it sends a pulse width-controlled current to the close coil of the injector.
  • The current energizes the close coil.  Magnetic force moves the spool valve to the closed position.
  • High pressure oil is dead headed against the spool valve.
End of Main Injection Step 2
  • The pulse width-controlled current is shut off after 800 µsec (micro seconds or millionth of a second) but the spool remains in the closed position.
  • The intensifier piston and plunger begin to return to their initial position.
  • Oil above the intensifier piston flows past the spool valve through the exhaust ports.
  • Fuel pressure decreases until the nozzle needle control spring forces the needle back onto its seat.

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