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6.0L DIT Power Stroke - Part 5

Source:
International Publication


Part 5 of 6 in a series of articles outlining the Features, Descriptions, Unique Service Procedures, and General Diagnostics of the 6.0L DIT Power Stroke

From International Truck & Engine Corporation Publication

6.0 DIT Power Stroke

Electrical Components

Generation II Electrical Components Overview
  • The PCM uses information form the sensors to decide which commands to send to the FICM, the actuators, and the glow plug system.
Sensors Overview
  • The PCM sends a Vref of 5.0 volts to the engine sensors except for CMP and CKP which generate voltage through the collapse of a magnetic field.
  • The PCM uses 5 volts as the reference voltage to maintain consistency throughout all operating conditions.
  • The Vref is conditioned by the sensors then returned to the PCM for use in determining the fueling strategy.
AP (Accelerator Pedal Position)
  • The AP (Accelerator Pedal) is a three track pedal.  The AP incorporates three potentiometers.  Throughout the movement of the AP, the resistance values of the three potentiometers must agree.  During the movement of the AP, if one of the three potentiometer readings do not agree, the check engine light will illuminate and the vehicle will continue to perform as normal.  If two signals from the AP are lost, the PCM will allow the engine to idle only and illuminate the check engine light.
  • The three-track pedal is a safety feature.  The three-track pedal takes the place of the Idle Validation Switch allowing for limited system failure and still maintaining performance.
Baro (Barometric Pressure)
  • The BP sensor is a three (3) wire variable capacitance sensor.
  • The PCM supplies a 5 volt reference signal which the BP sensor uses to produce a linear analog voltage signal that indicates pressure.
  • The primary function of the BP sensor is to provide altitude information so that the PCM can adjust timing, fuel quantity, glow plug on time, and VGT control.
CKP (Crankshaft Position)
  • The crankshaft position signal source is a magnetic pickup sensor mounted in the right front side of the engine block.
  • The sensor reacts to a target wheel positioned on the crankshaft.  The target wheel is a 60 minus 2 tooth steel disk with 58 evenly spaced teeth and a slot that's width is equivalent to removing 2 teeth (minus 2 slot) that is the SYNC gap.
  • The sensor will produce pulses for each tooth edge that breaks the magnetic field created by the permanent magnet that is in the end of the sensor.
  • Crankshaft speed is derived from the frequency of the CKP sensor signal.
  • Crankshaft position can be determined by the synchronization of the CKP peg signal to the CKP minus 2 slot signal.
  • Diagnostic information on the CKP input signal is obtained by performing accuracy checks on frequency and/or duty cycle with software strategies.
  • The PCM needs both the CKP and CMP signal to calculate engine speed and position.  The CKP creates a signal that relates to crankshaft speed and position relative to TDC (Top Dead Center).  The CMP creates a signal relative to which stroke the piston is currently on (compression or exhaust).
CMP (Camshaft Position)
  • The camshaft position signal source is a magnetic pickup sensor mounted on the left front side of the engine block.
  • The sensor reacts to a peg, pressed into the camshaft at the front of the engine.
  • The peg will pass the sensor once per camshaft revolution; the sensor will produce a single pulse correspondingly.
  • Camshaft speed is derived from the frequency of the CMP sensor signal.
  • Diagnostic information on the CMP input signal is obtained by performing accuracy checks on signal levels, frequency, and/or duty cycle with software strategies.
  • The PCM needs both CKP and CMP signals to calculate engine speed and position.  The CMP creates a signal that the PCM uses to indicate a particular bank.
  • The CMP contains a permanent magnet which creates a magnetic field, when the magnetic field is broken by the peg on the camshaft a signal is created.
  • A conditioned CMPO (Camshaft Position Output) is sent from the PCM to the FICM so that the FICM can perform fueling calculations.
  • The PCM conditions the signal and sends it out as TACH signal for body builder use.
ECT (Engine Coolant Temp.)
  • The ECT sensor is a two (2) wire thermistor sensor.
  • The PCM supplies a 5 volt reference signal which the ECT sensor uses to produce an analog voltage.
  • The ECT sensor changes resistance when exposed to different temperatures.
  • When the temperature of the coolant decreases, the resistance of the thermistor increases and the signal voltage increases.
  • When the temperature of the coolant increases, the resistance of the thermistor decreases and the signal voltage decreases.
EGRVP (Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve Position)
  • The EGRVP sensor is a three (3) wire potentiometer type sensor.
  • The PCM supplies a 5 volt reference voltage that the EGRVP uses to produce a linear analog voltage that indicates the amount of movement of the valve.
  • The PCM monitors EGRP as the engine is operating to modulate the EGR valve.
  • This is a closed loop function which means that the PCM continuously monitors the EGRVP to ensure proper valve operation.
EOP (Engine Oil Pressure Switch)
  • The EOP (Engine Oil Pressure Switch) is a switch that closes a circuit to ground after engine oil pressure reaches approximately 5-7 psi.
  • This switch controls the oil pressure gauge on the instrument panel.  When pressure is above 7 psi, the gauge will read normal and if the pressure drops below 6 psi, the gauge will show 0.
  • The information from the switch is not fed back to the PCM in any way and is to used as a reference only.
EOT (Engine Oil Temperature)
  • The EOT sensor is a two (2) wire thermistor type sensor.
  • The PCM supplies a 5 volt reference signal which the EOT sensor uses to produce an analog voltage that indicates temperature.
  • The PCM monitors engine oil temperature via the EOT sensor signal to control EGR, glow plugs, VGT, and fuel quantity and timing throughout the operating range of the engine.
  • The EOT signal allows the PCM to compensate for oil viscosity variations due to temperature changes in the operating environment, ensuring adequate power and torque are available for all operating conditions.
EP (Exhaust Pressure)
  • The EP sensor is a three (3) wire variable capacitance sensor.
  • The PCM supplies a 5 volt reference signal which the EP sensor uses to produce a linear analog voltage that indicates pressure.
  • The EP measures exhaust back pressure so that the PCM can control the VGT and EGR system.
IAT1 (Intake Air Temperature #1)
  • The Intake Air Temperature 1 (IAT1) sensor is a two (2) wire thermistor sensor that is located inside the Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor.
  • The PCM supplies a 5 volt reference signal which the IAT1 uses to produce an analog voltage that indicates the intake air temperature.
  • The IAT1 sensor's primary function is to measure intake air temperature to control the timing and fuel rate when cold starting.  The continuous monitoring by the IAT1 sensor limits smoke emissions.
  • The MAF/IAT1 sensor is mounted in the intake air piping after the air filter.
IAT2 (Intake Air Temperature #2
  • The IAT2 sensor is a two (2) wire thermistor type sensor.
  • The IAT2 sensor changes resistance when exposed to different air temperature.
  • When temperature decreases, the resistance of the thermistor increases.  This causes the signal voltage to increase.
  • When the temperature increases, the resistance of the thermistor decreases.  This causes the signal voltage to decrease.
  • The primary function of the IAT2 sensor is to provide a feedback signal to the PCM indicating manifold air temperature.
  • The PCM supplies a 5 volt reference signal which the IAT2 sensor uses to produce an analog voltage that indicates temperature.
  • The PCM monitors the IAT2 signal to determine if the temperature is satisfactory.
  • During engine operation, if the PCM recognizes that the IAT2 signal is lower or higher than the expected value, it will set a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) and illuminate the amber malfunction indicator lamp on the dash.
ICP (Injection Control Pressure)
  • The ICP sensor is a three (3) wire variable capacitance sensor.
  • The PCM supplies a 5 volt reference signal which the ICP sensor uses to produce a linear analog voltage that indicates pressure.
  • The primary function of the ICP sensor is to provide a feedback signal to the PCM indicating ICP.
  • The PCM monitors ICP as the engine is operating to modulate the IPR.  This is a closed loop function which means the PCM continuously monitors and adjusts for ideal ICP determined by conditions such as load, speed, and temperature.
  • The PCM monitors the ICP signal to determine if the performance of the hydraulic system is satisfactory.
  • During engine operation, if the PCM recognizes that the ICP signal is lower or higher than the value the IPR is trying to achieve, the PCM will set a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) and illuminate the amber malfunction indicator lamp on the dash.
  • The ICP signal from the PCM is one of the signals the FICM uses to command the correct injection timing.
MAF (Mass Air Flow)
  • The Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor uses a hot wire sensing element to measure the amount of air entering the engine.  Air passing over the hot wire causes it to cool.  This hot wire is maintained at 200C (392F) above ambient temperature as measured by a constant cold wire.
  • The current required to maintain the temperature of the hot wire is proportional to the air mass flow.
  • The MAF sensor then outputs an analog voltage signal to the PCM proportional to the air mass.
MAP (Manifold Absolute Pressure)
  • The MAP sensor is a three (3) wire variable capacitance sensor.
  • The PCM uses the MAP sensor signal to assist in the calculation of EGR duty cycle.
  • The PCM measures the MAP signal to determine intake manifold (boost) pressure.
Actuators
  • Actuators convert electrical output from the PCM to hydraulic, mechanical, or electronic work.
  • The 6.0L Power Stroke uses four (4) actuators: Injection Pressure Regulator, Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve, Variable Geometry Turbocharger Control Valve, and Glow Plug Control module.
IPR (Injection Pressure Regulator)
  • The IPR (Injection Pressure Regulator) is a duty cycle controlled valve that the PCM uses to control ICP (Injection Control Pressure).
  • The IPR is a valve that blocks the path to drain for oil coming out from the high pressure pump.  As duty cycle signal increases at the IPR, the restriction to drain increases, thus increasing ICP.
  • When the valve is disconnected, it is in its open or drain state and the engine should not start.
  • The IPR valve also contains the pressure relief valve for the high pressure oil system.
EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation
  • The EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) valve is used to mix cooled exhaust gasses with intake air to lower emissions and noise.
  • The EGR valve is duty cycle controlled; the higher the duty cycle, the more the valve opens.
  • When the valve is disconnected, it is in its closed state.
VGTCV (Variable Geometry Turbocharger Control Valve)
  • The VGTCV (Variable Geometry Turbocharger Control Valve) is a duty cycle controlled valve that directs oil flow to the piston that controls the vanes in the turbocharger.
  • The valve controls pressure to both the open and close side of the piston.
  • If the valve is disconnected, the turbocharger vanes will remain in a open state.
Other Electrical Components
  • Other electrical system compounds include the FICM, PCM, and the glow plug system.
FICM (Fuel Injection Control Module)
  • The FICM (Fuel Injection Control Module) receives information from the PCM (like volume of fuel desired, RPM, EOT, ICP, and others) and uses those signals to calculate injector start of injection and duration.
  • After calculating injector fuel delivery timer the IDM sends a 48 volt 20 amp pulse to the correct injector so that the correct amount of fuel will be delivered to the cylinder at the correct time.
PCM (Powertrain Control Module)
  • The Powertrain Control Module (PCM), which is mounted behind the battery on the drivers side inner fender panel, uses sensor inputs to control actuators and send fueling commands to the FICM.
  • The PCM controls the fuel and air management systems on the 6.0L Power Stroke.
Glow Plug System
  • The glow plug system is used to warm the air in the cylinders to enhance cold weather startability and reduce start up smoke.
  • The glow plug system is PCM-controlled.
GPCM (Glow Plug Control Module)
  • The GPCM (Glow Plug Control Module) is a unit that controls the glow plugs in order to warm the air in the cylinders.
  • The GPCM uses a glow plug enable signal to turn the glow plugs on for a time controlled by the PCM.
  • The GPCM is capable of diagnosing a problem with one glow plug and then sending a diagnostic signal to the PCM.
  • It also has the ability to turn off one glow plug is a short is detected in that circuit.
Glow Plug
  • The glow plug is used to heat the air in the cylinder.
  • Inside the plug are two (2) coils (resistance) connected in series; one to create heat and one to control heat at its peak.
Glow Plug Sleeve
  • The glow plug sleeve is used to protect the glow plug from engine coolant and is made of stainless steel.
Glow Plug Buss Bar
  • Each bank of glow plugs is connected to the wiring harness via a glow plug buss bar.
  • The glow plug buss bar has four connectors attached to a single metal rail.
  • The entire rail must removed to gain access to any of the glow plugs on that bank.
Glow Plug System Diagnostics
  • One way to verify diagnostic data from the GPCM is to measure the amperage draw with an inductive amp probe.
  • Once the glow plug system has been commanded on by the PCM (when engine temperature is warm you may need to trick the system into a cold condition) for about 40 sec., the glow plug amperage should be stable.  Each glow plug should draw between 10-12 amps.
  • When testing the glow plug system, it is best to measure one bank of glow plugs at a time.  The bank with the lower current draw would be the bank with the bad glow plug and/pr wiring concerns.

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