Section 05-00: Axle and Driveshaft, Service
1996 F-150, F-250, F-350 4x2 and 4x4, F-Super Duty and Bronco Workshop Manual
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING

Symptom Chart Axle And Driveshaft Service

 
AXLE AND DRIVESHAFT SERVICE
ConditionPossible SourceAction
  • Excessive Rear Axle Noise
  • NVH (noise, vibration and harshness) problem.
  • PERFORM the NVH tests to determine whether the noise is an NVH caused by a rear axle problem. REFER to Section 00-04.
 
  • Worn or damaged rear wheel bearing.
  • REFER to Section 00-04 for diagnosis of Shake/Vibration. REPLACE rear wheel bearings if required.
 
  • Rear axle differential.
  • ROAD TEST vehicle to verify problem is rear axle noise rather than other system noise. REFER to Section 00-04. REPAIR and REPLACE parts as required.
  • Loud Clunk in the Driveline When Shifting from Reverse to Forward
  • High idle speed.
  • ADJUST idle speed.
 
  • Loose engine mounts.
  • INSPECT, REPAIR as required.
 
  • Loose or worn driveshaft components, rear axle universal joint flange attaching nut below specs.
  • RAISE vehicle, ROTATE driveshaft by hand to isolate problem as driveshaft or rear axle problem. REPAIR or REPLACE as required.
 
  • Rear axle shafts or differential.
  • REMOVE and INSPECT. REPAIR as necessary.
 
  • Inoperative shock absorbers or loose rear springs or suspension arms.
  • INSPECT, REPAIR or REPLACE as required.
 
  • Excessive backlash in axle, or transmission.
  • PERFORM total backlash check of rear axle. CHECK transmission. REFER to appropriate section of Group 07. REPAIR or REPLACE as necessary.
 
  • Insufficient lubrication.
  • ADD lubricant as required.
  • Driveline Clunk as Vehicle Starts to Move Following a Brake Stop (Two-Piece Driveshaft)
  • Loose rear spring U-bolts.
  • TIGHTEN U-bolts to specification.
 
  • Worn or galled output driveshaft and coupling shaft splines.
  • REMOVE the driveshaft from the vehicle. CLEAN the male splines and INSPECT for worn or galled splines. REPLACE if necessary.
 
  • Worn or galled driveshaft slip yoke splines.
  • CLEAN and INSPECT the female splines of the driveshaft slip yoke for worn or galled condition. REPLACE if necessary.
 
  • Damaged driveshaft slip yoke seal.
  • REPLACE seal.
 
  • Insufficient lubrication in driveshaft slip yoke.
  • Using a long handle (stencil type) brush, APPLY grease evenly on all the splines of the driveshaft slip yoke. REINSTALL driveshaft and using a hand grease gun, LUBRICATE the driveshaft slip yoke through the grease fitting. Use Premium Long-Life Grease XG-1-C or -K or equivalent meeting Ford specification ESA-M1C75-B.

    NOTE: Install the driveshaft slip yoke, making sure that the coupling shaft and driveshaft are in phase.

  • On Turns, the Rear Axle Has a Chattering Noise (Limited Slip Rear Axles Only)
  • Improper lubricant.
  • ROAD TEST vehicle DRIVE in tight circles, five clockwise and five counterclockwise. If chatter is still evident, FLUSH and REFILL with specified rear axle lubricant, and dosage of friction modifier additive. (See Front and Rear Axle Lubricant Specifications and Capacities at the end of this section.)
 
  • Differential.
  • REMOVE differential, REPAIR as required.
  • Ford Limited Slip Does Not Work in Snow, Mud or on Ice
  • Differential.
  • Dana Limited Slip Does Not Work in Snow, Mud or Ice
  • Worn or damaged differential.
  • Starting with one wheel on a slippery surface, APPLY the parking brake lightly. Gradually OPEN throttle. If the vehicle moves, the rear axle is operating satisfactorily. If no movement, REFER to Section 05-02F. For F-150 with limited slip front axle, REFER to Section 05-02D.
  • Driveline Concerns
  • Rear spring U-bolt loose.
  • RETIGHTEN U-bolt.
 
  • Universal joint worn or improperly installed.
  • REINSTALL or REPLACE universal joint.
 
  • Coupling shaft driveshaft center bearing bracket improperly installed.
  • Correctly INSTALL driveshaft center bearing bracket and REPLACE if damaged.
 
  • Excessive runout in rear axle universal joint flange or damaged universal joint.
  • ROTATE rear axle companion flange 180 degrees and REINSTALL. RECHECK and if not acceptable, REPLACE rear axle universal joint flange or universal joint and REPAIR as required.
 
  • Excessive lateral and radial tire and wheel runout.
 
  • Excessive driveshaft runout.
  • REPLACE driveshaft or ROTATE driveshaft 180 degrees and CHECK for out-of-balance condition.
 
  • Rear axle universal joint flange out-of-balance.
  • REBALANCE driveshaft.
 
  • Driveline and pinion angles out-of-specification.
  • ADJUST to specifications.
 
  • Binding, damaged or galled splines on driveshaft slip yoke.
  • CHECK transmission for proper lubricant, and CLEAN and LAP splines. LUBRICATE splines with Premium Long-Life Grease XG-1-C or -K or equivalent meeting Ford specification ESA-M1C75-B.
  • Noise Is the Same on Drive or Coast
  • Road noise.
  • Normal condition.
 
  • Tire noise.
  • REBALANCE or REPLACE tire.
 
  • Front wheel bearing noise.
  • ADJUST or REPLACE wheel bearings.
 
  • Improper driveline angles or phasing.
  • ADJUST or CORRECT as required.
  • Loud Clunk in the Driveline When Shifting from Reverse to Forward
  • Loose or worn driveshaft components, universal joint attaching nut below specifications.
  • INSPECT, REPAIR, REPLACE as required.
  • Lubricant Leaking from the Pinion Seal, Axle Shaft Oil Seal or Support Arm to Housing
  • Observe rear axle universal joint flange (end yoke) dust shield for damage in seal contact area or dust slinger.
  • REPLACE rear axle universal joint flange (end yoke) and pinion seal if damage is found.
 
  • Dirt or other debris is blocking vent.
  • CLEAN rear axle housing vent.
  • Noise Tone Lowers as Vehicle Speed Is Lowered
  • Tire noise.
  • REBALANCE or REPLACE tire.
  • Similar Noise Is Produced with Vehicle Standing and Driving
  • Engine noise.
 
  • Transmission noise.
  • REFER to appropriate transmission section.
  • Vibration
  • Noise Most Pronounced on Turns
  • Differential side gears and differential pinion gears.
  • REPLACE gears.
  • Drive Noise, Coast Noise or Float Noise
  • Wheel bearings or differential side bearings.
  • ADJUST or REPLACE wheel or differential side bearings.
 
  • Differential ring gear and pinion.
  • CHECK differential ring gear and pinion. ADJUST or REPLACE.