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The last few days my 2001 Ford-F250 has lost power. Acceleration is very slow, and I can't go over 58mph when hauling my trailer, unless it's downhill, even with the pedal to the floor. (it has been easy to pull before this developed) If I keep trying it will only down shift and run at a very high rpm but not really increase speed. Any ideas on the issue? Engine, turbo? Anything I could check?

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The start for your issue would be checking all fluid levels, fluid condition, for fluid leaks, visual inspection of all external engine components, and, reading codes for engine and transmission.

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Do you have any gauges? Or a scanner? If the visual inspection doesn't reveal anything, I would put boost and fuel pressure at the top of my list. After that would be IC pressure. Also, the CPS can mimic a lot of things we attribute to more mechanical explanations. Always keep a spare genuine International (Ford rebagged) CPS and never hesitate to swap out with your spare when diagnosing.

Boost is reported to the PCM as MAP pressure (so with the key on engine off it will show 14.x depending on your altitude and true boost is MAP minus atmospheric). You can watch that with any 7.3 compatible scanner. You could also do a boost leak check with some fittings from home depot and an air compressor.

Fuel pressure requires an adapter. #13-005 Schrader valve - Fuel Injection rated 1/8 MNPT is the best one. It screws into the back of the fuel filter bowl and allows you to use a fuel pressure gauge. I personally think everyone needs a full-time fuel pressure gauge on these motors for situations just like you have.

If boost and fuel pressure are ok, then you need to watch IC pressure and IPR duty cycle while driving. While rare, a failing high pressure oil pump would give symptoms similar to what you are experiencing.
 
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It’s not a turbo boost issue, unless you are seeing a ton of black smoke.
If you do not get a check engine light with your description of complaint, You just are not getting enough fuel flow.
As the good gentleman from Texas (RT) ( Love ya brother and always will), stated a fuel pressure gauge would be a good Idea. If you do not wish to buy and install a gauge, you can buy test fittings for the fuel bowl from Diesel Orings.Com. You can also check if you have clogged filters in your tank. You can check that by disconnecting the supply line at the pump. Clamp on a 5/16” hose to the inlet of the pump. Run the hose up to the bed of the truck. Weigh down that end with a weight. Put it in a 5 gallon can of diesel that is strapped down. Start the truck and let it idle for a half hour to purge air. Take it for a drive. If it’s good, the filters in the tank are partially clogged. If it’s not, the main filter is clogged or the pump is weak.
 
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